Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive / keyhole surgery. It is a modern technique in which
operations performed through small incisions
(usually 0.5–1.5 cm) as opposed to the larger incisions needed in open surgeries.
There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure. These include:
- Reduced bleeding, which reduces the chance of needing a blood transfusion.
- Smaller incision, which reduces pain and shortens recovery time, as well as resulting in less post-operative scarring.
- Less pain.
- Although procedure times are usually slightly longer, hospital stay is less, and often with a same day discharge which leads to a faster return to everyday living.
- Reduced exposure of internal organs to possible external contaminants thereby reduced risk of acquiring infections.
While laparoscopic surgery is clearly advantageous in terms of patient outcomes, the procedure is more difficult from the surgeon’s
perspective when compared to traditional, open surgery:
- The surgeon has limited range of motion at the surgical site resulting in a loss of dexterity
- Poor depth perception
- Costly equipment.
- Surgeons must use tools to interact with tissue rather than manipulate it directly with their hands.
Some laparoscopic surgeries commonly performed in relation with infertility are
Diagnostic laparoscopy/ Laparoscopy for tubal evaluation
It is the visual inspection of the female pelvic structure with the help of laparoscope. It is the gold standard female pelvic evaluation tool. By doing this we get to know a lot about the female reproductive organs like, uterus, tubal patency, ovary and any other abnormality. Advantage is it’s a day care procedure and if required curative action can be taken at the same sitting.
It is the inspection of the uterine cavity with a telescope. It is usually clubbed with diagnostic laparoscopy.
It is aprocedure done on patients with severe PCOD who are not responding to medications. It has got merits as well as demerits. Here we introduce a small needle into the ovary and the hormone producing cells are destroyed. So this procedure is used with caution and does only if indicated.
Laparoscopy is fantastic tool in cases with endometriosis. Whatever be the stage of disease laparoscopy will give an idea regarding the exact extend of disease and thus help the clinician to plan he definite treatment without much delay. But the surgery in severe endometriosis is a highly skilled job as recurrence is common with endometriosis surgery.
It is the procedure of removal of fibroids, via laparoscope.
Here the doctor uses the laparoscopy to do repair of the damaged tube and try to make it a functional one.
Laparscopy is the gold standard in diagnosing and correcting the tubal pregnancy.
The problems like, uterine septum, sub mucosal fibroid, intra uterine adhesion etc can be corrected with the help of hysteroscopic surgeries.